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Deep vein thrombosis
Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) refers to abnormal blood coagulation in the deep vein, and belongs to the lower extremity venous reflux disorder. Thrombosis occurs mostly in the brake state, especially in orthopedic operations. Pathogenic factors include slow blood flow, venous wall injury, and highly coagulation state. After formation of the thrombus, the solid will spread to the main trunk of the deep vein, making it extremely difficult to ablate. If the DVT is not diagnosed and treated timely, most of the resulting symptoms will become sequelae of thrombosis, which will affect the quality of life of the patients for a long time.      
Clinically, only 10-17% of patients with DVT have obvious symptoms. These include swelling of the lower extremities, local tenderness and dorsiflexion pain. The most serious clinical feature and physical sign of DVT development is pulmonary embolism, which has a mortality rate as high as 9-50% with the vast majority of deaths occurring within minutes to hours. DVT with symptoms and signs is more common in patients with operations, trauma, advanced cancer, coma, and long-term bed rest.
Primary prevention should be carried out for all patients undergoing major lower limb operations. Be sure to encourage active movement of the patient’s feet and toes and instruct him to breathe deeply and cough more often. Allow the patient to get out of bed early and wear stretch socks when necessary. More attention should be paid to the elderly or heart patients after surgery.
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